Wednesday, March 25, 2020

5 Reasons for Leaving a Job and How to Deal Once You Go

5 Reasons for Leaving a Job and How to Deal Once You Go Gone are the days when you’d start your career as an eager young entry-level employee at a company, then flash-forward to your retirement party at the same company, after rising through the ranks (and the various hairstyle and wardrobe changes). It used to be fairly common to commit to a company for the duration of your career, leaving a job only for life changes or unexpected events (getting fired or laid off). These days, the average worker holds ten different jobs before turning 40 years old. Ten! That’s a lot of jobs, and a lot of transition. Now, you’re not obligated to have that many different jobs, and if you are willing and able to move from intern to manager to CEO at Widget Corp, go for it! For most of us, it’s not really an option. Economic circumstances change, or there’s not enough room for growth. You meet that awesome someone, who just happens to be moving across the country for his or her own job, and wants you to come with.Everyoneà ¢â‚¬â„¢s career path is a little different (and thank goodness for that- we can’t all be web designers or interpretive dance choreographers), so the reasons for leaving are as varied as we are. Let’s look at some of the most common, valid reasons for leaving your current job, and how to make the transition from one to the next.1.   You hate your job/boss/company2.  You want better work-life balance3.  You never planned to be in  it  forever4. You don’t make enough money5.  The decision was made for you1. Leaving a job because you hate your job/boss/company.Sometimes relationships just don’t work out. It’s not necessarily anyone’s fault (okay, we all secretly know it’s their fault), but sometimes a job just isn’t a good fit for you. If you find that your work days are more defined by conflict and unhappiness than by productivity, then yeah, it’s time to start putting out feelers for a new opportunity.How to de al with this: Your next employer wants to know why you left, and also that you’re a reliable bet. If you go into an interview talking smack about your previous place of employment, the interviewer will think, â€Å"hmm, is that how he’s going to talk about us in a year?† So when you’re asked why you left, emphasize that it wasn’t a good fit. Be specific, but gracious:â€Å"I enjoyed many aspects of my job, and I learned a lot of great leadership skills there, but ultimately I see myself as a manager, and there just wasn’t enough room for growth there.†2.Leaving a job because  you want better work-life balance.If you’re working 80 hours a week, but want to carve out more time for your family and fly-fishing hobby, it may be time to start looking elsewhere. If you talk to your boss and there aren’t ways to make your position flexible enough for your priorities (work-from-home arrangements, flex time off, different work h ours), then you’re just going to get more and more frustrated in your current role.How to deal with this: This can be a tricky area in a job interview- potential employers aren’t allowed to ask you about family status, health problems, or many personal issues. If you’re looking for a more flexible job because you and your partner want to have a baby soon, you don’t have to be explicit about the reasons why you might not want to be on call days, nights, and weekends anymore. You can just leave it as a general personal decision:â€Å"I loved my job as the Parks Director, but in the next phase of my career I want to find a position where I can grow while also having a more healthy work-life balance. This company appeals to me because I know you’re committed to helping employees find that balance.†3. Leaving a job because you never planned to be in  it  forever.You take a job because you’re looking for something in the interim, or to pay the bills while you finish school to pursue your dream career as a circus clown. Whatever the case may be, it’s possible you never intended this job to be your career-defining role. If that’s the case, there’s an expiration date looming, whether you’ve set a specific timeline or not. If that end date is approaching, then it’s time to get out gracefully.How to deal with this: You don’t want to look like someone who bolts when things get tough, or when a shiny new opportunity comes along. Make sure you emphasize your long-term goals, without saying (in so many words) that you weren’t interested in the job long-term:â€Å"I saw my last position as a great growth area, where I could improve my skills and get experience, but now it’s time to move on to my longer term goals, like [X].†4. Leaving a job because you don’t make enough money.This is a perennial favorite among people who leave jobs for other opportunities . Money is one of the most basic facts of our lives, and if you aren’t making enough at a certain level, or are clearly being paid beneath what you’re worth, it’s not likely that this is an issue that will just resolve itself. If you’ve already done your research to figure out what your job is worth for someone at your skill level and level of experience, have tried to parlay that into a raise, and have been underwhelmed by your company’s response- it’s valid to use that as your excuse for leaving.How to deal with this: Money issues require every bit of diplomacy at your disposal. To your soon-to-be-former boss/company, it’s important not to be bratty about the reason you’re leaving. If you’ve been asked in an interview for a new job about why you left your last one, bringing up money can be a minefield. It could put you at a disadvantage for later negotiations, or could price you right out of the job offer if they think you’re expecting six figures and a Ferrari when they’re offering five figures and a discounted Zipcar membership. Be firm about your commitment to moving up in the world, but non-specific about the financial aspect of it:â€Å"At this point in my career, I’m looking for the kind of growth that Former Co. couldn’t offer in my previous role.† Or if you’re talking to Former Co., be honest: â€Å"Based on my role in the company and my achievements here, I was hoping my compensation could be adjusted accordingly. Since we’ve discussed this and those resources aren’t available, it’s time for me to pursue other opportunities. I really appreciate my time here, but it’s time for me to move on.†5. Leaving a job because the decision was made for you.Being ushered out the door is a pretty ironclad reason to leave your job. It might not even have gotten to that point yet, but you can read the writing on the wall. If yo u’re being elbowed out of your job for whatever reason, the spin you put on it is especially important as you look for your next job.How to deal with this: If you’re dreading the â€Å"why did you leave?† question in an upcoming job interview, start working the spin. Don’t lie, especially if you were fired for a reason that will come up in a background check, or if the interviewer happens to be college roommates with your old boss (it’s a small world after all, trust me on this). Frame it as a learning experience, and emphasize that you’ve taken what you could from the situation, and are actively addressing it as part of your future:â€Å"My last position wasn’t a good fit, and I learned hard lessons about how to approach situations. I made some mistakes in judgment that I strive to overcome every day, and I know that my experience and skills are the stronger for my ongoing efforts.†Whatever your reason is for leaving your curr ent job, it’s so important to make sure that your exit is a classy one. Always keep the tone gracious, no matter how ticked off you may be, or how many grudges you’re holding about your workload, your treatment, your boss, the terrible coffee in the break room. Be as honest as you can about your reasons for leaving (without making yourself look bad, or letting a snide or angry tone get the best of you), because you likely have genuine feedback that the company can use in recruiting your replacement, or making personnel decisions in the future.Plus, as I mentioned, most industries are very small worlds- you never know who might hear about your exit, or who might know someone who knows someone who used to work with you. It’s in your best interest to make sure that your reasons for leaving are clear, backed up with specific information, and let go as water under the bridge as you get ready for your new job offer, or your job search. No bridge is more useful when it ’s burned, so it’s important for your reputation (and your own sanity) to keep everything clear and professional.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Essay on Deforestation

Essay on Deforestation Essay on Deforestation Throughout the tropics, rain forests are being cut down. By different methods and for different reasons, people in tropical regions of the world are cutting down, burning, or otherwise damaging the forests. The process in which a forest is cut down, burned or damaged is called "deforestation." Global alarm has arisen because of tropical rain forests destruction. Not only are we losing beautiful areas, but the loss also strikes deeper. Extinction of many species and changes in our global climate are effects of deforestation. If the world continues at the current rate of deforestation, the world's rainforests will be gone within 100 years-causing unknown effects to the global climate and the elimination of the majority of plant and animal species on the planet. Deforestation occurs in many ways. The majority of rain forest cut down is cleared for agricultural use-grazing of cattle, planting of crops. Poor farmers chop down a small area (typically a few acres) and burn the tree trunks, a process called "Slash and Burn" agriculture. Intensive, or modern, agriculture occurs on a much larger scale, sometimes deforesting several square miles at a time. Large cattle pastures often replace rain forest to grow beef for the world market. Commercial logging is another common form of deforestation, cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp. Logging can occur selectively-where only the economically valuable species are cut-or by clearcutting, where all trees are cut. Commercial logging uses heavy machinery, such as bulldozers, road graders, and log skidders, to remove cut trees and build roads. The heavy machinery is as damaging to a forest as the chainsaws are to the trees. There are other ways in which deforestation happens, such as the building of towns and flooding caused by construction of dams. These represent only a very small fraction of total deforestation. The actual rate of deforestation is difficult to determine and has been the focus of NASA-funded scientists for many years. NASA projects to study the deforestation of tropical forests are conducted by analyzing Satellite Imagery (pictures taken by satellites in space) to view areas of forest that have been cleared. Figure 1 shows part of a satellite scene, showing how scientists classify the landscape. There are both patches of deforestation and a "fishbone" of deforestation along roads. Forest fragments are isolated forest pieces left by deforestation, where the plants and animals are cut off from the larger forest area. Regrowth-also called secondary forest-is abandoned farmland or timber cuts that are growing back to become forest. The majority of the picture is undisturbed, or "primary," forest, with a network of rivers draining it. The most recent figures by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimate tropical deforestation (rain forest and other tropical forests) at 53,000 square miles per year (15.4 x 106 ha/yr) during the 1980s (FAO 1993). Of this, they estimate that 21,000 square miles (6.2 x 106 ha/yr) were deforested annually in South America, most of this in the Amazon Basin. Based on these estimates, each year an area of tropical forest large enough to cover North Carolina is deforested. Each year! The rate of deforestation varies from region to region. Our research showed that in the Brazilian Amazon, the rate if deforestation was around 6200 square miles per year (1.8 x 106 ha/yr) from 1978-1986, but fell to 4800 sq. miles per year (1.4 x 106 ha/yr) from 1986-1993 (Skole and Tucker

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

INSURANCE MARKETS & OPERATIONS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

INSURANCE MARKETS & OPERATIONS - Essay Example The various impacts of the risks that affect the insurance industry are analyzed along with their impact upon the demand and supply of insurance. Nonetheless the impact of the demand and supply upon the insurance and upon the industry as a whole is examined along with their impacts upon alternation of the industry structure. Factors that affect various insurance operations are determined with the intensity of their impact regarding the change in supply and change in the insurance industry thus resulting in the change in the structure. The future of the insurance amounting to various factors that accounts for the change in the industry and how they shall be impacting the industry in the future is analyzed. The scope of the industry in the future regarding changes in the demand and supply along with the structural changes that shall be evolved so as to benefit from the external factors is determined (Rejda, n.d.). The response of the industry regarding the factors is analyzed in curren t and future terms and the future of the insurance industry is determined regarding change and the external factors. ... Amal, et al., 2012). The external factors of the insurance industry are discussed in detail below. Risks The insurance industry is to account and tackle risks that are faced by various entities. The change in the intensity of the risk determines the demand and supply of insurance. The structural risks that have evolved in the recent years when the company mergers enhanced and various companies started consolidating the risk increased. There are various risks factors affecting the insurance industry and they are categorized differentially along with the nature and impact (Coomber, 2006). The change in the risks that are to be faced the insurance industry changed in accordance so as to manage those risks. Economic Risks The economic risks increased when the global crises in various economies increased and thus impacted the insurance industry. Major systematic financial failures resulting in the closure of many corporates such as Enron and Lehman Brothers Bank has gathered the intention towards reconsideration of risk (Jeffrey & Amy, 2004). The economic changes around the world have caused the insurance industry to realize the intensity of the risks that in increasing and thus account for the changing and increasing risk of economy to incorporate in its operations and structures. The financial imbalances around the globe and the change in the incomes have caused the insurance industry to reanalyze the demand of the insurance. Environmental Risks The definition of the risks totally changed when the environmental changes in the globe began much of a concern. The development and the impact of the risks that is faced by the environment caused the insurance industry as how the

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Strategic Management Fuel business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Strategic Management Fuel business - Essay Example The key strategic issues for GM are its organizational efficiency, its production processes, and market responsiveness. GM can improve its situation by altering its organizational structure to promote a lean management process. It should change its production processes to reflect higher efficiencies in supply chain and platform distribution, and increase its market responsiveness by shortening its time from design development to rollout. General Motors (GM) is one of the world's largest companies, with manufacturing operations in over 30 countries and product sales of nine million units in more than 200 nations over the world.1 In spite of its rich history of rising from humble beginnings in 1908 to its apex of controlling 65% of domestic car sales in the mid-1970's, GM today is one of the least profitable vehicle manufacturers in the world. In fact, as of the date of this case study, GM's return on invested capital is only 1/6th that of one of its major competitors. This represents a significant dilemma that must be addressed and resolved if the company is to maintain its viability. The purpose of this paper is to examine the critical strategic issues facing GM and offer recommendations on specific steps that can be taken to address the deficiencies. The analysis of critical strategic... First, the external environment is reviewed to identify those opportunities and threats which may be present. These include industry issue, competitor actions, and customer trends. Further external considerations may include supplier and supply chain management as well as environmental factors. Second, the internal environment is analyzed to determine both strengths and weaknesses so that the former can be maximized and the latter attenuated. Finally, the results of the SWOT analysis are synthesized into identifiable, key strategic issues that can be prioritized for management's focus. Once identified in terms of their urgency, the issues can be addressed in such a manner as to bring about the most positive result in the most efficient and timely way. External. In terms of industry-wide strategic management considerations over the past 25 years, GM has not done a good job responding to the changes facing the industry. Like most American car manufacturers, the company was unprepared for the 1973 energy crisis and the subsequent revelation of its product's fuel inefficiency. As the market demand changed to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles, GM was not positioned to make the necessary adjustments and thus lost market share to the new competition; the Japanese. The foothold gained by the competition in that era has been expanded in recent years and although GM has restructured several times, it has never regained the market share necessary for profitability. From a competitor standpoint, the Japanese automakers were particularly well situated to threaten GM's market share. They were already proficient at manufacturing smaller vehicles, had a tighter management structure, a better cost efficiency, and out-performed GM and

Monday, January 27, 2020

David Ricardo: The Comparative Advantage

David Ricardo: The Comparative Advantage As a successful classical economist of the 1700 to 1800s, David Ricardo is known for many of his contributions to political and classical economics including the theory of comparative advantage. The theory of comparative advantage suggests that a person can have a comparative advantage at producing something if he or she can produce it at a lower cost than anyone else. On a larger scale, the comparative advantage has played a large role in free trade, and providing markets with goods and services that would have otherwise been unavailable (Library of Economics and Liberty, 2007). This report will discuss the complications and advantages of the comparative advantage, David Ricardo’s background and theories, the comparative advantages effect on the economy, the political aspect of the theory of comparative advantage, and how it has developed over time. The Comparative Advantage The Comparative Advantage has had a direct effect on international trade and voluntary trade. The theory explores how to create mutually beneficial gains through trade between countries through comparing opportunity costs. Consider the following equation for opportunity cost:, if both China and Canada produce steel and wool, but China produces steel at a lower opportunity cost than Canada (meaning that they give up less monetary assets, goods, or labour costs to produce it), and Canada produces wool at a lower opportunity cost than China, each country has a comparative advantage against one another. This is where mutually beneficial gains of each country comes into play, if Canada chooses to trade some of the wool they have produced for metal, they are gaining more metal then they would have if they had chosen to create both the wool and metal themselves (Cohen Howe, Scarcity, opportunity cost, and trade, 2010). The benefits of the comparative advantage are simple, when a person wak es up in Canada on a cold winter morning and enjoys a glass of orange juice and a cup of coffee, they are enjoying the benefits of the comparative advantage theory. This is because Canada is not able to produce cocoa beans or grow oranges, therefore countries such as Brazil and the USA have a comparative advantage, and Canada must import these goods from them. In Canada much of what makes up the gross domestic product comes from exports and imports, in fact Canada’s import 34% of their goods, and export 36% of GDP. Considering the GDP equation: it becomes apparent of the direct impact this theory has on the Canadian economy, and how it is detrimental for its continuation and growth (Cohen Howe, Globalization and Trade Policy, 2010). Although there are many clear benefits regarding the comparative advantage, there are a few complications and criticisms that must be taken into consideration. The main issues with this theory are the effects of trade on the country doing the trading, these concerns include prices of goods in the country, production levels of said goods, employment levels, who exports and imports what, consumption levels, wages and incomes and welfare effects. These issues can be affected both positively and negatively by uncontrollable forces such as technology and government and can have a direct impact on a countries GDP (Suranovic, 2007). Some other areas of concern include relative prices and exchange rates not being taken into consideration, overstating of benefits and ignora nce of costs such as transport costs and sea and air pollution, as well as the complexity of the real world in comparison to the simplistic example of two countries trading goods (Economics Online, n.d.). David Ricardo David Ricardo began as a stock broker for the London stock exchange in the late 1700s, during this time he gained great wealth that allowed him to further develop other interests such as science and economics. At the age of 27 Ricardo read The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, and this commenced ten years of studying and by the age of 37 David Ricardo his first published work called The High Price of Bullion, a Proof of the Depreciating Bank Notes (Spengler, 2014). Ricardo was a true believer in the quantity theory of money, which is the belief that money supply has a direct relationship with price. In 1815 Ricardo published an article called Essay on the Influence of a Low Price of Corn on the Profits of Stock, during which he expressed his opposition to Corn Laws, which at the time caused a restriction on the importation of wheat. As a result of this, Ricardo developed the idea of comparative costs, which is now known as the comparative theory or the Ricardian Model (Library of Econ omics and Liberty, 2008). In his book On the Principles of Political Policy and Taxation Ricardo suggested that by having an absolute advantage (where a country makes their own goods and does not trade) a countries profits can never increase. He advocates that foreign trade can increase profits by bringing food and necessities into the market at a lower price thereby reducing wages and increasing profits. Ricardo asserts that this theory provides advantages to all consumers, as well as producers as they gain more product but costs remain the same (Ricardo, 1817). Ricardo suggests that a country can benefit greatly from trade through the realization and optimization of their comparative, and absolute advantage goods (Suranovic, 2007). Economic Aspect The comparative theory has had ample effect on the global and Canadian economy. For the purposes of this report the focus will be on the Canadian economies effects pertaining to the comparative theory and free trade. In 1989 Canada created a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) which allowed them to trade their goods globally with other countries, five years later the North American free-trade agreement (NAFTA) was implemented to allow free trade between Canada, Mexico and the United States of America. These events have drastically reformed the Canadian economy to what it is today (Schwanen, 2013). Canada relies heavily on free trade to maintain its GDP, specifically through exports and imports. Canada has become the ideal example of how the comparative theory can benefit a country, this is because Canada has much better technology then other countries and has many resources to create its own products and services, but through free-trade Canada is able to grow economically and provide an abundance of goods to its residents. International trade has the ability to increase incomes, saving and investment, all of which have the ability to positively affect the economy. There are many determinants that must be taken into consideration when determining a countries comparative advantage, these include; resource endowments (availability of resources), human skill (such as engineers, programmers, etc.), technology, demand patterns, specialization, business practices, and government policies (Gupta, n.d.). In recent years Canadian exports and imports have been increasing steadily. Exports are comprised of all goods leaving the country such as all goods grown, produced, gathered or manufactured within said country). In 2013 the Canadian merchandise export values increased 3.6% from the previous year, and 1.5% in the last 10 years. Exports to the United States have also been steadily increasing to a current 75.8% of all exports (See Figure 1), and the total value of all exports in Canada in 2013 was $471.4 billion. Imports are comprised of all goods that have entered the country, these include any goods that have crossed boundaries. In 2013 the Canadian merchandise imports increased 2.8% from 2012, and 3.3% in the last 10 years. This data displays a clear increase in imports over exports, which has created a trade deficit in 2013(See Figure 3) (Statistics Canada, 2013). Political Aspect Political decisions have a considerable amount of power regarding the comparative theory and free-trade. These decisions include political pressures regarding trading agreements, creation and implementation of policies, export and import interests, and negotiation between countries (Grossman Helpman, 1993). In Canada, the comparative advantage lies within industries that excerpt natural resources and raw materials. These include wheat, meat, seeds, natural gas, metals, wood and paper. In order for Canada to sustain this comparative advantage it must maintain continual green development to ensure natural resources are still competitive in comparison to other countries resources. Political policies must address these concerns and ensure the prosperity of Canada’s natural resources while still maintaining a high level of exports and imports, as they directly impact the country’s gross domestic product. Canada also has a comparative advantage within the auto industry, as well as aerospace, insurance and communication industries (The Conference Board of Canada, 2013). It is detrimental to Canada’s future economic growth as well as their strengthening of the comparative advantage to ensure technological advances are being made and trade agreements with technologically inn ovative countries are being made. Technology accounts for 5% of Canada’s GDP, and must be able to compare in such a competitive global market. Political figures are responsible for determining and advising on sanctioning policies and identifying emerging businesses to strengthen Canada’s digital advantage (ICTC, 2013). Development of the Comparative Advantage Through the generations the comparative advantage has created growth and innovation in many industries, while it has had great impact on international trade and free trade, there have been hypothesis that the comparative advantage has weakened over time. A recent study named The Evolution of Comparative Advantage: Measurement and Implications suggests that countries with a comparative disadvantage have a faster economic growth than those with a comparative advantage, in both refined and unrefined countries. The study also suggests that the comparative advantage has stayed the same from the 1960s to the 2000s due to productivity levels increasing, and an increase of 15% in GDP in the 2000s that could have been higher had the comparative advantage not been weakening. Finally, the authors have reported that trade patterns have been impacted and have become more similar across countries, such as log and wood. This study suggests that there is still ample work to be done to restore the co mparative advantage and refine it to be more beneficial in today’s economy (Levchenko Zhang, 2014). Conclusion In closing, I consider David Ricardo’s theory to be innovative and well-intended, the world and country I have grown up in would not be what it is today if not for the comparative advantage and free-trade. In this report many aspects of the comparative advantage theory were discussed, what the comparative advantage theory is in regards to opportunity costs and international/free trade, as well as who benefits from the theory and what effects it has on Canada. The history of David Ricardo and his ideals for the future including the Ricardian model. The economic and political aspects and effects of the comparative advantage theory and free-trade in Canada. As well as the evolution of the comparative advantage, and its current place in economics now. Considering the increase in technology and the limited natural resources the world is currently facing, I believe it is important to work towards refining the comparative advantage to help countries better contribute to other country ’s needs, while still mutually benefitting from the trade. In the coming years it will be quite interesting to see how the world handles future innovations and changes in trade and how the Ricardian Model will contribute to those advancements. Bibliography Cohen Howe, A. J. (2010). Globalization and Trade Policy. In A. J. Cohen Howe, Economics for Life (pp. 334-335). Pearson. Cohen Howe, A. J. (2010). Scarcity, opportunity cost, and trade. In Economics for Life (p. 399). Pearson. Economics Online. (n.d.). Comparative Advantage. Retrieved from http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Global_economics/Comparative_advantage.html Grossman Helpman, G. M. (1993). The Politics of Free Trade Agreements. Retrieved from The National Bureau of Economic Research: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4597.pdf Gupta, S. D. (n.d.). Comparative Advantage and Competitive Advantage: An Economics Perspective and a Synthesis. Retrieved from economics.ca: http://economics.ca/2009/papers/0534.pdf ICTC. (2013). Strengthening Canadas comparative advantage. Retrieved from Information and Communications Technology Council: http://www.ictc-ctic.ca/?p=9821 Levchenko Zhang, A. A. (2014). The Evolution of Comparative Advantage: Measurement and Welfare Implications. Retrieved from The National Bureau of Economic Research: http://www.nber.org/papers/w16806.pdf Library of Economics and Liberty. (2007). Comparative Advantage. Retrieved from Library of Economics and Liberty: http://www.econlib.org/library/Topics/Details/comparativeadvantage.html Library of Economics and Liberty. (2008). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: David Recardo . Retrieved from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Ricardo.html Ricardo, D. (1817). On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. Retrieved from Library of Economics and Liberty: http://www.econlib.org/library/Ricardo/ricP2a.html#Ch.7, On Foreign Trade, comparative advantage Schwanen, D. (2013). Free trade transformed Canadas economy. Retrieved from The Globe and Mail: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/free-trade-transformed-canadas-economy/article16124601/ Spengler, J. J. (2014). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from David Ricardo: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/502193/David-Ricardo Statistics Canada. (2013). International Trade Canadian Economy . Retrieved from Industry Canada: http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cis-sic.nsf/eng/h_00029.html Suranovic, S. M. (2007). The Theory of Comparative Advantage. Retrieved from International Trade Theory and Policy: http://internationalecon.com/Trade/Tch40/T40-0.php The Conference Board of Canada. (2013). Canadas trade strengths come from natural resources and related industries. Retrieved from The Conference Board of Canada: http://www.conferenceboard.ca/press/newsrelease/12-06-19/canada_s_trade_strengths_come_from_natural_resources_and_related_industries.aspx Figures Figure 1. Top Export Destinations. An overview of total exports from Canada to other countries. Figure 2. Top Import Sources. An overview of total imports to Canada from other countries. Figure 3. Exports, Imports and Trade Balance. A comparison of exports, imports, and the trade balance (deficit) from 2004-2013.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Succubus Heat CHAPTER 23

Dante wasn't around when I got home, nor was he reachable by phone. That relieved me of any guilt I had about going out with Seth, meaning my only other obstacle was the accusatory look Roman gave me when we parted. I had no idea how he would spend his evening, and honestly, I didn't really want to know. The problem Seth and I had with going out was that we pretty much had to avoid the city. We knew people in the suburbs too, but the odds of running into anyone were a lot smaller. The rainy weather Roman and I had experienced in the afternoon had blown over, and we suddenly found ourselves in semi-warm conditions that made it almost possible to go without a coat. I would have read the fortuitous weather as a divine blessing, if not for the fact that I'd given up on such beliefs long ago. To my astonishment, though, Seth said he wanted to go downtown and felt pretty confident we wouldn't be spotted. He drove us over to Belltown, parking underneath one of the many high-rise apartment buildings that seemed to be sprouting up there every day. A mysterious key let him inside, and the elevator took us all the way to the top floor. â€Å"What is this?† I asked when we entered a sprawling penthouse suite. It kind of made me wonder if I should have been setting my real estate aspirations in a different direction. I gave him a startled look. â€Å"You don't own this, do you?† Seth having a secret vacation home wasn't entirely improbable. â€Å"Belongs to someone I know who's out of town. I called in a favor.† â€Å"You have friends I don't know?† He gave me A Look, and I let the matter go. Besides, the place was so beautiful that I had plenty of distraction. The colors were all done in shades of navy and gray, and the furniture was plush and expensive. I especially liked the fact that the walls were decorated with huge reproductions of pre-Raphaelite work. Nowadays, abstract art was the trendy way to go, and it was nice to see something a little different. â€Å"Wait'll you see the rest,† said Seth, beckoning me out to the balcony. Or, well, â€Å"balcony† was the closest word I could come up with. It was practically half the size of my apartment and faced west, showing part of downtown's glittering array of lights and all of Puget Sound. I stared in wonder, watching a ferry move across the dark expanse of water. â€Å"Wow.† That about summed it up. We stood there for a few moments, and Seth's arm slipped around me. This high up, the unseasonable warmth had turned to seasonable gusts and coldness. I shivered, and Seth draped me in a blanket that had been neatly folded on a wrought-iron chair. â€Å"Have a seat,† he said. â€Å"I'll be back with dinner.† I grinned at the gallantry and sat at an ornate, candlelit glass table that still allowed me to take in the view. Waiting for Seth, I felt all sorts of strange feelings stir to life within me. This was it, I realized. I didn't know how I knew, but this was the end of whatever it was that we had right now. Maybe something new would take its place. Maybe we'd never have anything again. Regardless, this moment was crystallized in time for me. Nothing like it would ever come again. Dinner turned out to be an array of tapenade and bread, as well as-to my shock-a bottle of wine. â€Å"Is that whole thing for me?† I asked. He shook his head. â€Å"I'll have a glass.† â€Å"What? Starbucks, now this?† I peered at the bottle to make sure it wasn't some kind of weird alcohol-free kind. Nope. â€Å"It's a special occasion,† he said with a smile, and I knew he'd gotten the same vibe that I had, that this was the end of something. â€Å"Besides, how can I live out the Rubaiyat if I don't have all the accoutrements?† â€Å"Of course. Your uber-romantic date would be based on a poem.† I could already see him getting into quotation mode. He cleared his throat to speak. â€Å"Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough A Flask of Wine, a Book of Verse-and Thou Beside me singing in the Wilderness- And Wilderness is paradise enow.† I tsked. â€Å"You've got the bread, wine, and me†¦but no bough. And hardly the wilderness.† â€Å"It's the urban jungle,† he argued. â€Å"And no book of verse,† I continued, liking my contrary role. Then I reconsidered. â€Å"Although, I did finish All Fools Night .† Seth's expression immediately grew serious. â€Å"And?† â€Å"You already know. It was beautiful.† â€Å"No, I don't. It's a mystery every time-no pun intended. The words come out, but in the end†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He shrugged. â€Å"You never know how they'll be received, what people will think. I'm always kind of surprised.† â€Å"What did the opening quote mean? The Kate Bush lyrics about making a deal with God?† â€Å"You should hear the cover of that song that Placebo did. It'll blow you away.† Seth gave me a knowing look. â€Å"You think there's some hidden meaning?† â€Å"There's always a hidden meaning. You added it in after you met me, didn't you?† â€Å"Yeah†¦I mean, it relates to the book obviously†¦to O'Neill's revelation at the end. But I guess it relates to us too.† His eyes drifted away, lost in the vista around us. â€Å"I don't know. We've had to deal with so many complications. We're still dealing with them. And what can we do? Nothing-well, unless we take your side's point of view and make deals with the devil. But why? Why can't we make deals with God?† â€Å"People do all the time. ‘God, if you do this for me, I promise to be good.' Stuff like that.† â€Å"Yeah, but I don't see any contracts like you guys have. No hard evidence that it works.† If I wasn't mistaken, there was a little bitterness in his voice. â€Å"How come we can only get the things we want by being bad? Why can't we get them by being good?† â€Å"I'll ask Carter the next time I see him,† I said dryly. â€Å"But I have a feeling he'd say goodness is its own reward.† We'd picked over the tapenade by now but hardly touched the wine. His claims aside, I wasn't sure Seth had even sipped his. He turned back toward me. â€Å"You and I aren't being very good, are we?† he asked. That was an understatement. â€Å"You and I are the victims of unfortunate timing.† I paused. â€Å"And a lot of other unfortunate things.† â€Å"Would have been a lot simpler if this stasis thing had happened when we were dating. Or if we'd just given in then.† â€Å"No,† I said. â€Å"No way. I don't care if this is a mess. It's worth it that I didn't end up hurting you.† You spared him physical pain , a nasty voice inside me taunted. But what about Maddie? Pain isn't always physical, you of all people know that. What about the heartache you've caused her? I ignored the voice. â€Å"I don't care,† said Seth. â€Å"I would have done it. I would have sold my soul for you. You and me†¦I told you. Something's always going to keep us near each other†¦even if we aren't together.† I rose from my chair and sat on his lap, wrapping my arms around him and wondering how it was possible that my heart was both swelling and breaking at the same time. I leaned my head against his shoulder. â€Å"I love you,† I said softly. â€Å"And I forgive you.† Something weird about those words made me shiver, as though I'd never said them to anyone. â€Å"And I understand now why you did what you did.† I didn't elaborate on the â€Å"what.† I didn't need to. Seth kissed my cheek. â€Å"Do you ever feel like†¦we're reliving this moment over and over?† I thought about our troubled past. â€Å"If we are, I don't want to worry about it. Not right now.† I think he was going to say more, possibly even correct me, but I didn't give him a chance. I kissed him, and like every other time, it was sweet and powerful and the most right thing in the world. We wrapped ourselves together, and somehow, despite the cold weather, we got enough clothes off and made love with the wind whipping our hair and the stars shining down on us. And like that first time, I still had that sense that we weren't close enough. Even when our bodies joined and he moved in me, it still felt like I could never, ever be close enough to him. Maybe it was this mystical connection he kept talking about. Or maybe it was just a metaphor for our lot in life. We sat together for a long time afterward, draped in blankets and saying little. I wanted to stay there all night. Forever, even. In this affair, it was the one thing we hadn't done: spend the night together after sex. We always had to part and go on to the rest of our lives. He finally dropped me off at my car, and we kissed for a long time before I could finally extricate myself. Seth ran his hand along my cheek and hair, reluctant to let me go. I shared the sentiment. â€Å"What will you do now?† he asked. â€Å"I don't know. One more search tomorrow, I guess. If there's even time. I expect Ephraim to name somebody any minute now.† Seth nodded, eyes dark and thoughtful. â€Å"Well, if you need company again†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I smiled, unsure if that was a smart idea or not, but it wasn't a decision I wanted to make tonight. I didn't know if I wanted the balcony to be our last moment together in this fling or if I wanted to cling to another few precious seconds, even on the beach. â€Å"I'll let you know,† I promised. I kissed him one last time and then left to find my own car. I had just unlocked it when a voice spoke to me out of the darkness. â€Å"Can you give me a lift?† I sighed. I really didn't like the way everyone could sneak up on me lately. Of course, with Carter's sick sense of humor, I wasn't entirely shocked. He'd lurked while hiding his aura plenty of times in the past because he liked the element of surprise. Still. I didn't even have a fighting chance now. I opened my door. â€Å"Sorry. I don't pick up hitchhikers.† Undeterred, he slid into the passenger seat and put on his seat belt. â€Å"Did you have a good evening, madam?† He spoke in an old-fashioned, genteel sort of way. â€Å"Don't take that tone with me.† â€Å"What tone? I was being polite.† â€Å"You know exactly what I've been doing, so don't act like you're making pleasant conversation.† â€Å"Why are they mutually exclusive?† I refused to look at him. â€Å"I don't want to be judged.† â€Å"Am I judging you? Sounds more like you're judging yourself, which really, is the way it should be. The best jury of your peers that you'll ever find is†¦well, you. Only you know what you're capable of and what you want to be.† â€Å"Did you find me just to delve into the philosophy of my morals?† I grumbled. â€Å"Nah,† he said. â€Å"Whenever I find you, I just sort of go with this free-form thing and see where the mood takes me.† â€Å"Maybe the mood could take you to Jerome.† â€Å"That's your quest, not mine. Any luck?† Again, I faced that dilemma. Who could I tell what? Grace, Roman†¦so many players on the board now and no clear opponent. â€Å"Some,† I said at last. â€Å"Oh-ho,† he laughed. â€Å"You could be an angel with an answer like that.† â€Å"Well, I don't think it's going to be enough to find Jerome, not unless a miracle happens.† The drive was short. I pulled up outside my building, getting a lucky front spot. Carter turned and winked at me. â€Å"Well, you know my take on those. Thanks for the lift.† â€Å"Wait,† I said, realizing he was about to teleport away. â€Å"I have a question.† He arched an eyebrow. â€Å"Oh?† â€Å"How come when mortals want things, their only option is to make a deal with Hell and sell their soul? Why can't they make deals with God in exchange for good behavior?† It was another of those rare moments when I'd surprised Carter. I waited for the glib answer I'd mentioned to Seth, something along the lines of goodness being its own reward. The angel considered for several seconds. â€Å"Humans make those deals all the time,† he said finally. â€Å"They just don't make them with God.† â€Å"Then who are they making them with?† I exclaimed. â€Å"Themselves.† He vanished. â€Å"Fucking angels,† I muttered. I arrived in my apartment only minutes before Dante showed up. â€Å"Oh, I'm in luck,† he said, seeing me on the couch with Aubrey. â€Å"You seem to always be busy lately.† I felt a small pang of guilt at what I'd done tonight. A lie was still a lie, no matter who you were lying to. â€Å"I'm saving Seattle,† I explained, making room for him beside me. He sat down, clean-shaven for a change and looking good in his usual jeans, thermal shirt, watch, and boots. His insecurity was driving him to buy me gifts lately, but I realized I'd need to step it up and get him some wardrobe variety once all this madness ended. â€Å"And how's that going exactly?† Everyone kept asking me that. Seth. Carter. Dante. And my answer was lame each time. â€Å"Not so great, actually. I think tomorrow'll be the day it all resolves, and Jerome's going to be lost forever. Even if he's not, it'll be too late for him to get his old position back. His best-case scenario'll be someone's lieutenant in northern Michigan.† Dante put his arm around me and his feet on my coffee table. â€Å"Well, succubus, don't take this wrong way, but I'll be glad when this is over, new archdemon or no. I'm tired of you being stressed all the time, and I'm tired of not getting any face time with you.† He toyed with the strands of my hair. â€Å"I'm also kind of tired of how frizzy this is. Isn't there some product you can use?† â€Å"Hey,† I said. â€Å"Not funny. What happened to internal beauty?† He seemed undaunted. â€Å"You've got plenty of that. I just want the whole package. Besides, the look on your face was great when I said that.† His hand slipped from around my waist to trace patterns between my hip and thigh. It wasn't overtly sexual but I had a feeling that between that and his good mood-which I was happy for, don't get me wrong-there was an amorous advance in my future. â€Å"Will you read my cards?† I asked abruptly. He gave me a shocked look. â€Å"Tarot cards?† â€Å"Yeah.† â€Å"You know that's all bullshit.† â€Å"It is when you bend the truth for your clients. Please? Just do a quick one.† â€Å"Fine. I'll give you a card-of-the-day one. All the mysteries of the universe in one card.† I could hear the eye roll in his voice as he got up to get his cards out of his satchel. He usually kept them on him in the event of an impromptu client opportunity. â€Å"Don't lie to me,† I warned. â€Å"I know more than your clients.† â€Å"Wouldn't dream of it,† he said, deftly shuffling the cards. I'd seen him scam clients plenty of times, telling them what they wanted to hear. Seeing as I didn't know what I wanted, I supposed that excluded me from that category. After the cards were thoroughly randomized, he had me cut them, and then he neatly restacked them. â€Å"Draw.† I took the first card off the top and flipped it over. â€Å"Fuck.† The Five of Cups. Spilled chalices. Lost hopes and dreams. Dante affirmed as much. â€Å"Disappointment's ahead, the loss of something you had. It can be a failure or inability to resolve a recurring problem. Pretty typical reading for you.† â€Å"What's that supposed to mean?† â€Å"Doom and gloom always surround you. I didn't make up that palm reading for you.† That had been even worse than this. â€Å"It's probably just verifying that Jerome's gone for good-if you even want to believe in this. And, hey, look.† He tapped the card. â€Å"One cup stayed upright. Not all hope is lost.† I wondered about that as I thought about losing Seth and the man in the dream. I wondered also if Roman was right, if it was true that I wouldn't know what to do if I ever was actually happy. As I suspected, Dante did make sexual moves on me, but I demurred as I had all week. I knew it didn't matter at this point. My cups had emptied, and the ride with Seth was over. Yet, our time on the balcony had been so sweet and so powerful that once again, I couldn't be with someone else after an encounter like that. Soon enough my sex life with Dante would return to normal-but not tonight. He didn't seem angry at being turned down, so much as hurt. I felt a little bad about that but realized I'd rather feel guilty about betraying him than Seth. Dante was up and gone before me the next morning, but Roman was sitting in my living room eating cereal and generally making himself at home. He had to know I was standing there, but he kept his eyes on the morning news. When he finished the cereal, he clicked for Aubrey and set the bowl down for her. â€Å"Hey,† I said, scooping it up. â€Å"Milk's bad for cats.† â€Å"You need to let her live a little,† he protested, still watching the news. â€Å"So what's the plan today?† â€Å"I don't know. I'm still in stasis, so I guess that gives us time. Want to throw a dart at the map and go somewhere?† I gestured to the atlas of the Pacific Northwest lying on my coffee table. â€Å"Might be the most productive method we've tried,† he mused. He had that light tone he often used, but I could hear the disappointment too. It was still a mystery to me as to why he'd be so into helping find Jerome. It was a mystery best solved with coffee, I decided, and while the pot brewed, I rummaged for my own breakfast. I unearthed Pop-Tarts and again wondered about weight gain. â€Å"Um, Georgina†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"If you're asking if you can feed her anything else, the answer is no.† â€Å"You need to come see this.† His voice was deadly earnest. The hair on the back of my neck stood up, and I hurried back into the living room. Roman pointed at the TV. â€Å"You have got to be kidding me,† I groaned. The Army of Darkness had struck again. We were watching a Seattle station, but apparently, this north-of-the-border escapade had been deemed newsworthy. The prank had actually taken place over in Victoria, a city on an island just west of Vancouver but still in British Columbia. There were some very famous and very beautiful gardens there, and the Army had apparently broken in at night and done their best to clip a pentagram into a huge expanse of bushes. They'd enhanced it with spray paint. â€Å"Jesus Christ,† I muttered. The pentagram job was bad, but the group had been savvy enough to get out of there without being caught. One shot of a courtyard there showed where they'd spray-painted: ALL HAIL THE ANGEL OF DARKNESS . â€Å"Glad to see they haven't lost their touch,† Roman said wryly. I sank down onto the couch beside him, my mind spinning. Why? Why now? I'd toyed with the theory that the Army's activities had been an absurdly elaborate distraction to take everyone's attention away from Seattle. By that reasoning, their shenanigans should have stopped once Jerome was summoned. Yet here they were again. Had they acted on their own, just for the fun of it? Had Blake discovered a spray-paint sale? Or had Grace directed them again-and if so, why? Most of their other activities had lined up with some other significant part of the seal's creation or Jerome's summoning. Without wasting another moment, I picked up my cell and called Cedric. I actually got through to him rather than Kristin. â€Å"What?† he demanded when he answered. â€Å"This is Georgina. I just saw the news.† â€Å"Look, I do not have the time for you. In fact, you're the last person I want to talk to right now, seeing as how none of this would have happened if you'd done your job in the first place.† â€Å"Yeah, yeah, I know, but listen†¦was anything important going on today?† His voice was incredulous. â€Å"What, you mean aside from those idiots embarrassing me again ?† â€Å"No, I mean†¦any events or, I don't know†¦just anything important, um, demonically†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Well, if you consider my evaluation with Ephraim important, then yes.† The sarcasm dripped through the phone. I froze. â€Å"Thank you. That's all I needed to know.† He actually seemed surprised by that. â€Å"Really?† â€Å"Yeah, no, wait-when I talked to Kristin the other day, she said that you came to Seattle the day Jerome was summoned, but then Ephraim said when you got here, he was already gone. Is that true?† â€Å"Yes, of course. Do you doubt him?† â€Å"No, no†¦just making sure I heard right. And you were in Seattle for a while?† â€Å"Yeah, was with Grace and Mei dealing with the aftermath. Look, if you want to track my activities, wait until Kristin's back in the office.† He sighed in frustration. â€Å"Fuck. I wish she was here now.† I hesitated, then figured I couldn't make things worse. â€Å"Hey, just some friendly advice†¦but the next time you're looking at Match. com or asking out succubi, why don't you look a little closer to home?† â€Å"What the hell are you talking about?† â€Å"Kristin. If you're looking for someone who ‘gets' you, you've already got her. See you later.† I hung up before I could hear his response. Roman gave me a bemused look. â€Å"Are you matchmaking in the middle of this crisis?† â€Å"Just doing a good deed.† I tossed my cell phone from hand to hand, thinking. â€Å"Okay, so. The Army did a prank today-while Ephraim was interviewing Cedric. Not good for Cedric.† â€Å"Which is going to ruin his candidacy for Seattle.† â€Å"Likely, even though he claims he doesn't want it. Still, it makes sense that Grace would have them do it today†¦ if she had them do it and they didn't act randomly†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He shrugged. â€Å"Makes sense, but what's it matter? You already know she's got a role in this. All this does is clear him.† I frowned. I had the same sense I had the other day while analyzing the cult's activities, like I was so close but couldn't grasp all the threads. Against my better judgment, I dialed Evan. He flipped out when he realized it was me. â€Å"Georgina! We've been wondering what happened to you. Man, you will not believe what we did today, it was this-â€Å" â€Å"I already know,† I interrupted. â€Å"It was on the news down here.† â€Å"What? Holy shit. Hey! You guys!† I pulled the phone away as he yelled at whoever was with him. â€Å"We made the Seattle news!† A moment later he returned to me. â€Å"Wow, that's awesome. International recognition!† â€Å"Look, Evan. I need to know something. Did the Angel actually tell you to do this? And when I say that, I mean, did she actually appear in one of those visions or did you presume she wanted this?† â€Å"She was here. Told us to leave our mark at Butchart Gardens, so the world would know her glory. Cool too, since you know, it's a powerful place and all. No wonder it's having such far-reaching effects.† â€Å"Powerful place†¦Ã¢â‚¬  My fist closed around all the threads. â€Å"Evan, listen to me. Are you familiar with other places of power around you?† I'd always dismissed this group's arcane knowledge, never considering they might know a few things about the unseen world. â€Å"Of course.† Roman's eyes were fixed on me so hard, I thought they'd shoot lasers right through me. He could tell I was on to something. I took a deep breath. â€Å"Do you know of any place up there that's by a beach-on the ocean-that has white rocks or gravel or sand or anything like that? That's infused with power?† â€Å"White rocks?† he asked. There was a few second's silence. â€Å"Well†¦there's White Rock.† â€Å"What?† â€Å"It's this town that has, well, a giant white rock. Some kind of glacial thing, but the Indians thought it came from the gods or something. Always been a holy place.† â€Å"White Rock,† I repeated flatly. â€Å"Yup.† No, no. It could not be that obvious. Balancing the phone with one hand, I opened the atlas with the other and flipped to the section on British Columbia. There it was, on the coast, just barely north of the American border. White Rock. â€Å"Son of a bitch,† I said.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Malaysia : Making Patriotism Trough Primary School Education Essay

Discussing about creating the nation-state in all country seems to be the same. It should include too many times, property or self-sacrifice in order to making the â€Å"intelligence typical patriotism stereotype† among the citizens. It is depends on the strategy that applied to achieve the goal of â€Å"united people†. Taken from Malay aphorism â€Å"melentur buluh biarlah daripada rebungnya† seems to be the correct words to explain the strategy of creating this sort of thinking to the Malaysian people. The meaning is, when we want to â€Å"train† somebody, we should to start from the beginning of his life. Back to the point, Malaysia consist of more over 28. 3 million of population and separated into more than 50 ethnic randomly, and also consist a various believe and religion. However, they believe that they live in a peaceful and harmony country that no discrimination according to their ethnicity because they are in â€Å"one nation-state†. Thus, this mean the succeeded through the education able to abolished this sort of thinking. Primary school, is the first medium to educate the â€Å"fresh citizen† in order to create the citizen who love their country. Basically, Malaysia had two different elementary school that can be divide to three categories. There are â€Å"Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK)† which teach all Malaysian student with â€Å"no specific priority† and â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (SJK)† which we can divide to two, there are â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsan Cina (SJKC)† for the Malaysian Chinese and â€Å"Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Tamil (SJKT)† for the Malaysian Indian. For instantly, there is no obstacles to create this patriots even the school are separated. The question is, how do Malaysia do to overcome this problem? In this article, I will revealed how, through the study of Literacy, Art and â€Å"Spiritual and Morality† that teaching to the â€Å"fresh citizen† in a primary school, contribute to the creating of a nation. More than learning the languages, literacy teaching in primary school also aimed to deliberate the first layer of Malaysian history to the elementary school student. This shows, in the ages of seven until twelve years old, the pupils are expose about the beginning of nation state through language and history. Moreover, the literacy is not limited. It is consist of whole element of study. In addition, it is not only practices in the school, but also out from the teaching and learning session. For example, â€Å"Bahasa Melayu† is the compulsory subject that teaching in all types of school. The syllabus of this subject, is not only concern in reading, grammar, comprehension or composition, but the aim to teach this subject, is to exposed to the learning of the first languages and also the various ethnicity of Malaysia. Yes, languages is one of the â€Å"main course† in creating the nation. Thus, this subject are reliable and help much. In addition, the literacy also combined the â€Å"General History† teaching through the same subject. For examples Gurindam and Pantun which known as the tradition of the Malay, also learn about the different of Ethnic, Traditional Wearing, Festival and so on. From the argument, this shows the literacy teaching in primary school indirectly, help the pupils to know the Malaysian in the best medium. Secondly, I would like to stand with the most best approach in gain and grab the attention of the â€Å"Fresh Citizen† who are have the limited information of the â€Å"nation state†. Through the â€Å"Art† studies, this â€Å"Upstart Citizen† will easily conduct to the patriotism. In a primary school, most of the subjects teaching are connected with art. Thus art is not limited to the subject of Painting and Music. It is included in the syllabus of the other subject. But the question is, how far this subject can contribute to the shaped of nation state?. It kind of nonsense when talking about the â€Å"Malaysian Administration† to the kid who are not reached â€Å"Puberty† of course. But, we can teach them about the tradition and ethnicity. How? By subject painting art, there are syllabus on painting the poster of â€Å"traditional wearing† and the poster of â€Å"Malaysian peaceful state†, â€Å" Malaysian Festival† and so on. While, in Music subject, the pupils sing a song from 1Malaysia culture Language such as, song of â€Å"SuriRam† the Malay epic song, â€Å"Surang Gani† the Tamil song present the indian Malaysian, â€Å"Wo Hen How† the Mandarins song present Chinese ethnic and other ethnic songs. The best part is, during school assembly, they are required to sing the national anthem â€Å"Negaraku†, the state anthem and their school song. As we know the music is one of the attractive medium to deliver massage. Thus the â€Å"Negaraku† or other patriotic song can be the medium to educate the â€Å"Upstart Citizen† to be one of the state lover. It is reliable prove that the art subject in primary school, give the big impact to promote and contribute to the nation state. Next, through the spiritual and morality subject such as â€Å"Pendidikan Agama Islam†, â€Å"Pendidkan Moral†, and â€Å"Pendidikan Sivik† the pupils are taught about the positive value such as grateful, patriotism, love, helping each other, hardworking, etc. This shows the this subject is not only focus on the religion purely, but, the pupils are exposed to become the better citizen of Malaysia. To go trough one by one, â€Å"Pendidikan Agama Islam† basically teach the â€Å"religion needed† to the Muslim. There is generally about â€Å"Fardhu Ain† and â€Å"Fardhu Kifayah† which each of this teaching concern on the basic â€Å"Muslim Ummah† that concern to the â€Å"Islamic Lifestyle† that shows the good attitude. â€Å"Pendidikan Moral† is the subject that teach the Morality of being the good citizen in term of manners and healthy life style. While â€Å"Pendidikan Sivik† is teaching about the civic manners in a country. The similarity of this three subject are, its aim to â€Å"Brainwash† the â€Å"Fresh Citizen† to be a citizen that have a â€Å"Good Manners†, indirectly, its contribute to the developing the manners of the citizen in an nation state. To sum up, the primary education are the best time to shaped the minded of its citizen in order to be the nation-state because the â€Å"Fresh citizen† are more easier to adapt the new information and can stay along with the new environment . Malaysia got a various ethnicity and have the separated primary school, but, its no mean the spirit of the self-belonging to Malaysia cannot be develop. The syllabus teaching in all primary school seems to be the same. The Literacy, Art and Spiritual and Morality, shows through this taught of subject in primary school can produce the citizen that love their nation-state. Additional Reference 1) Ayop, M, R,. (2011) Gagasan 1Malaysia : Kesinambungan Bina Negara-Bangsa : Gempita Maju Sdn. Bhd. , Selangor. D. E 2) Imran A. (2013) Tingkat Semangat Patriotik Melalui Lagu : Bernama. [Online] Available at: http://web10. bernama. com 3) Muslim, N. & Alias, J. (unknown) PATRIOTISME: KONSEP DAN PELAKSANAANNYA DI MALAYSIA. : UKM [Online] Available at : http://repo. uum. edu. my/1866/1/35. pdf ——————————————– [ 1 ]. BERNAMA, (2013). Penduduk Malaysia kini 28. 3 juta : Berita Harian [Online] available at : http://www. bharian. com. my/bharian/articles/PendudukMalaysiakini28_3juta/Article/artikel [ 2 ]. Zainuddin, R. (2006), Perkembangan pendidikan di Malaysia : Penyata razak 1956, Sejarah Malaysia, Malaysia : Fajar Bakti Selangor D. E [ 3 ]. Prof. madya Hj Ibrahim, (2009) PENDIDIKAN SENI DI MALAYSIA ANTARA HARAPAN DAN REALITI [Online] Availale at : http://wwwartstudent. blogspot. com/2009/10/pendidikan-seni-di-malaysia-antara. html [ 4 ]. Unknown (2012) SUKATAN PELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM SEKOLAH RENDAH [Online] Available at : http://amrahahmad. blogspot. com/2012/04/sukatan-pendidikan-islam-sekolah-rendah. html.